common foot abnormalities include: flat foot( pes planus), high arched foot (pes Cavus), supinated foot, pronated foot, calcaneovalgus and calcaneovarus.
- Pes Planus (Flat Foot): a condition characterized by a dropped medial arch of the foot. It is due to laxity of the joints in the midfoot and forefoot regions plus the weakened or overstretched planter fascia, spring ligament and the Tibialis Posterior Tendon. Depressed arch will compromises the ability for typical load dissipation throughout the foot.
flat foot is either a RIGID deformity or a FLEXIBILE deformity.
– Rigid Pes Planus deformity demonstrates a dropped arch even without bearing weight on the foot. It is often congenital ( since birth ) or secondary in conditions affecting the joints or bone formation. It also could be a result of spastic paralysis due to the overpull of certain muscles.
– Flexible Pes Planus is the more common form of a dropped arch. In this category the arch is preserved during non-weight bearing but drops excessively when the foot is loaded. It is associated with tendinopathy or generalized dysfunction of the Tibialis Posterior muscle or increased laxity of the connective tissues.
- Pes Cavus ( exagerrated medial arch): this condition is associated with inversion ( inward rotation) of the hindfoot and eversion (outward rotation) of the forefoot. Many factors can cause Pes Cavus. Mild forms of Pes Cavus are considered Idiopathic ( for unknown cause) with genetic predisposition. Although it doesn’t receive as attention as does the Pes Planus in chronic cases it alters the biomechanics of walking and running. The high arch will result in more load placed on the heads of metatarsal bones causing callus formation and metatarsalgia ( a condition characterized by inflammation and pain of the ball of the foot).
other causes for Pes Cavus are known. It maybe posttraumatic caused by a crush injury or burn.
it is also seen in cases with neurologic origin as in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis and other motor and sensory neuropathies.